History of the Media, Radio, and Television

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When were the forms of media created? When did advertising first show up? Who owns the media?

Creation of the various forms of media

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Newspapers & Magazines ~ 1880

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Movies ~ 1910

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Television ~ 1945

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Cable Television ~ 1980’s

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Satellite Television, Internet, Digital Communication ~ End of the 20th century

In 1920, radio was first developed, primarily for use by the military, strictly for sendingHistory of the Media – Old Radios messages from one location to another. David Sternoff, the then-president of RCA, first had the idea to sell radio sets to consumers, or what were then called radio receivers. However, consumers needed a reason to buy radios, so RCA was the first to set up radio stations all over the country. Between 1920 and 1922, 400 radio stations were set up, starting with KBKA in Pittsburgh. Stations were also set up by universities, newspapers, police departments, hotels, and labor unions.

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By 1923, there were 600 radio stations across the United States, and $83 million worth of sets had been sold.

The biggest difference in radio before and after 1923 was that the first advertising was not heard on the radio until 1923. RCA at the time was made up of four companies:

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AT&T

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General Electric

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United Fruit

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Westinghouse

United Fruit was one of the first global corporations, and one of the first to advertise on the radio. The AT&T division of RCA first thought about selling time on the air to companies, which marked the start of “toll broadcasting.” WEAF was the first station to operate this way, causing widespread outrage, and accusation of “polluting the airwaves.”

Because of this controversy, the practice of selling advertising time was called “trade name publicity.” Sponsors linked their name with a program on the air, rather than advertising a specific product in a 30 second “commercial” as we know it today.

Why did AT&T decide to experiment with charging companies for air time?

AT&T was not making any money from broadcasting at the time since they only made transmitters, not receivers. They only made money when new radio stations bought the equipment required to broadcast. They did not make money from consumers buying radios.

AT&T also started the practice of paying performers for their time on the air, rather than only volunteers, which was standard practice for radio content up until that point.

The first radio network

In 1926, RCA set up the first radio network, NBC. They decided it was more effective and efficient to produce shows in New York City, and then link the main radio station with stations all across the country, connected by AT&T (another RCA company) phone lines. (Now television networks are linked by satellite to their affiliates).

This was the beginning of the network affiliates system. The ideal network makes sure everyone in the country is capable of listening to their signal. NBC at the time had two philosophies:

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Radio content was a “public service,” whose function was to sell radios.

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Radio content was designed to generate income from advertising.

History of the Media In 1927, the second network was formed. It was CBS, started by William Paley. Paley was the first to think that networks could make money strictly from advertising, not even getting involved in the sales of radios. Like AT&T, CBS did not make radios. From the start, they made their money from selling advertising.

The rising of radio networks caused the Radio Act of 1927 to be passed, which established the FRC, or what is now known as the FCC, to allocate broadcast licenses. The need for such an organization was brought on by the fact that airwaves are limited resources, and broadcasting itself is a scarce public resource. By the 1930’s, the structure of radio have been set by the commercial format, although advertising never dominated radio like it would television later on.

In the 1920’s and ’30’s, radio programs were divided into two groups. Sponsored shows, which had advertisers, and unsponsored shows, which did not. The radio station paid for the unsponsored shows. The sponsored shows, on the other hand, were created entirely by the company sponsoring the show; advertisers were totally in charge of the radio station’s content. The content became advertising. Radio set the precedent for television, in that the same companies that controlled radio early on went on to control television.

Soon thereafter, television inherited the structure of radio. In the ’40’s, during the rise of television, RCA also held a monopoly on all television sets sold. By 1945-1955, advertising had taken over all of television. Television was organized around the premise of selling things. The entire television industry was creating a political atmosphere of suspicion and fear. Senator Joseph McCarthy, the founder of McCarthyism, which was based on the fear of Communism, and the HUAC (House Un-American Activities Committee, began to question people involved in television about their beliefs and associations.

What affected television in its early stages?

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Politics (McCarthyism / HUAC).

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Blacklists: From almost the inception of television, many writers, directors, and actors were considered to be pro-Communist and/or un-American.

Certain topics were totally off-limits at the time for television, particularly issues of race relations in the 1960’s. Overall, networks were not happy with the political situation for television in the 1960’s, both in terms of the blacklists, and of the fact that when every show had one sponsor, that sponsor controlled the entire program. Networks preferred to control the program, by way of moving to multiple sponsors/advertisers, where networks would retain control of the show, and advertisers would buy time in between the programming.

In the 1950’s, networks decided to eliminate the practice of sponsors controlling the shows with a move to spot selling, or advertisements between programs, as we know it today. What caused the move to spot selling?

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Discovery of fraud in the quiz shows on television. Quiz shows were extremely popular at the time, and were liked by the networks, the sponsors, and the viewers alike. It turned out, however, that quiz shows were largely fixed. Charles Van Doren on “21” became a huge star due to his repeated wins, until it came out that the whole thing had been fixed. In the case of “The $64,000 Question,” the owner of Revlon was personally hand-selecting the winners and losers on the show.

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It was becoming financially difficult for just one advertiser to support an entire show.

Around this same time came the inception of ratings to measure a show’s popularity. Ratings, quite simply, measure the number of people watching a show. To understand why ratings are so important, it’s crucial to understand how the television industry works, through three questions, and their respective answers:

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Who owns television? [The networks]

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What is sold on television? [Viewer’s time, not television shows]

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Who are the customers of television? [Advertisers, not viewers]

This might be a counterintuitive concept for some. The networks, which own television, areHistory of the Media – Old Television the buyers of shows, not the sellers. On the other hand, they sell our eyeballs, so to speak, to advertisers. Networks want the maximum possible profit from buying and selling time, both viewers’ time, and advertisers’ time.

The primary measure of television ratings, which determine the price of that time being bought and sold, is AC Nielsen, an independent company which provides information as to who watches what on television. Currently, about 4,000 households are used to represent the national viewing of television. In the 1980’s, only 1,200 households were used. Some households have an electronic device installed on th
eir television which tracks what they watch, while others keep a diary of viewing habits.

There are two measures for determining a show’s audience. One is the rating, and the other is the share.

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Rating: Percentage of total homes with televisions tuned into a particular show.

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Share: Percentage of those watching television at a particular time who are tuned into a particular show.

The share is always greater than the rating. Ratings are more important for advertisers, and share is more important to the networks.

Example:

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Total households with televisions: 150 million

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Total households watching television at 8pm on Monday nights: 90 million

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Total households watching American Idol at 8pm on Monday nights: 45 million

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Therefore: Rating: 30, Share: 50

It’s important to note how many factors can skew the results. Shows cost producers much more than the networks typically pay them for those shows. The way for producers to make money is by getting the networks to renew the show, in order to have a shot at making money from syndication on other channels, also knows as reruns. That is the case when individual stations (say for example, the Miami affiliate of ABC wants to carry Seinfeld), buy the rights to a show from the producers of that show. Shows that last only one season, for the most part, lose millions of dollars. One of the most important factors in whether shows will be renewed or not is their rating.

This brings us to how ratings can be skewed. For example, if a show has a 20 share, and it needs a 25 share to be renewed for another season, what might the producers do? In principle, they need to convince another 5% of the people watching television when their show is on to watch their show; this is no simple task, as that involves convincing millions of people. However, since the ratings are based on those 4,000 Nielsen households, that means that they could convince just 200 Nielsen households to watch their show, which would increase the share from 20 to 25. This is why Nielsen households must be kept totally secret from the networks. When the Nielsen households have leaked to the networks, one way which they got people to watch their show was by offering viewers a small sum of money for filling out a survey about a commercial which they were told would play only during a particular show. Since they had to watch that channel while their show was on, this would boost the share.

Once ratings are determined, advertising prices are set by two factors:

* The size of the audience.

* The demographics (income, age, gender, occupation, etc) of the audience.

In short, the job of television programs is to collect our time as a product, which they then sell to advertisers. Programs have to support the advertising, delivering viewers in the best possible state of mind for buying when the time for the commercials comes, which brings us to the Golden Age of Television.

The 1950’s are considered the “Golden Age of Television.” During this time, something called the “Anthology Series,” where different actors each week took part in a show gained History of the Media – I Love Lucypopularity across the board…that is, with everyone except for advertisers. The anthology series format was not right for advertisers, as it covered topics which involved psychological confrontations which did not leave the viewers in the proper state of mind for buying the products shown to them between program segments. The subject matter of the anthology series was of the type that undermined the ads, almost making them seem fraudulent.

This brought up the question of what to network executives actually want shows to do? The answer is not to watch a program that makes them feel good, makes them laugh, or excites them, but rather to watch the television for a set amount of time. With so many new shows being proposed, standards began to be intentionally, or unintentionally, laid out for what shows could and couldn’t do. Risks could only be taken at the beginning and/or end of shows. Laugh tracks were conceived to tell the audience when to laugh. Programs began being tested with audiences prior to being put on television and/or radio. Show writers now had to write shows that would test well.

Naturally, this caused many of the same elements and themes to appear in all shows. This was the beginning of recombinant television culture, where the same elements are endlessly repeated, recombined, and mixed.

This same culture is what perpetuated the idea that people watch television, not specific shows. While people certainly choose to watch certain shows instead of others, people less commonly choose to watch television instead of other things. People watch television. Regardless of what was on, television viewing rates were extremely stable.

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UK Media Advertising

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ADVERTISING ON UK MEDIA

There are many options for advertising your brand, product or service within the UK advertising marketplace.
Below is a list of the various media options available to you.

Television
Radio
National Press
Local and Regional Press
Magazines
Cinema
Posters

Within each of the above media there are even more options available to you.
However within this article I wanted to take this opportunity to take you through these various traditional media services, and impart my knowledge.
The reason behind this is I am in the process of building a new client portfolio and would like to offer my services to those of you who are interested in promoting your products or services in the Uk, but are not sure of where to start.
Let me also state that I do not intend to make this too technical, and intend only to make available to you the topline information to give you an outline understanding of what can be achieved.

Television

I have written an article on the early days of planning and buying Uk TV advertising which you can read by clicking here.
One of the most important and interesting changes in Uk TV advertising in the past decade, is the launch of Satellite and Digital TV channels in the UK. Which at the end of the day has basically reduced the entry cost level onto TV for many advertisers, it has also created many more viewing and buying options.
The choice and selection of TV channels are now in the region of 200+, but what does this mean?
Basically it means no matter how big or small your budget is, there will be an opportunity to promote your brand or service on TV.
Let me take you through the various options available.

ITV
Can be purchased on a regional basis, and within various regions this can even be broken down into macro regions, making ITV more affordable than you may of envisaged.
Also ITV has a number of national satellite channels ie ITV2,3,4.
Within the ITV1 natoinal and even the satellite channels airtime can be purchased across a number of time bands:

Coffee Time (early morning pre-noon)
Daytime (1200-16.30)
Pre-Peak (16.30-18.00)
Peak (18.00-22.00)
Late off Peak (22.00-)

NB:These time bands are a rough guide for all stations.
So as an example if you have a brand that is targeted against adults 50+, they can be reached by promoting your product or service during pre-noon and 16.30-18.00 (which is a prime time slot for this age group).
Of course dependent on your target market there will be various different time bands and options for reaching your potential customers.

BREAKFAST TV

Is generally between 06.00-09.30 and is operated on a national and macro regional basis by GMTV, also CH4 operate a breakfast service.
Here again dependent on your target market these are ideal for reaching houswives and houswives with kids.
You will note that GMTV carries quite a large number of toy advertisers.

CH4

Similar to ITV though tends to be younger, however is available nationally and by macro regions.
CH4 also operate their own satellite stations +4 etc, which again offer a wide range of opportunities for reaching your target market (or as I say potential customers).

CH5
Available on a national basis.

Satelite/Digital Tv

The options available to you on these stations are huge, so rather than go into too much detail I will be brief. There are channels covering virtually every subject you can think off, from holidays, history, sport etc.
It should be noted though that satellite tv channels can only be purchased on a national basis, though the entry levels will be lower than launching an ITV1 campaign.
I should also make you aware though that ITV1 audience levels will also be higher than the satellite channels.

COMMENTS
It was my intention to keep the above information brief and just to give you a feel of what is available. The skill in understanding this marketplace background is where I come in with over 30 years of background and direct contacts with the media owners.
The research audience data in the UK is highly sophisticated and this can be discussed, should you be interested in advertising on TV,
Before I move on here is a list of the TV comercial sizes that can be purchased:
10′, 20′, 30′, 40′ and 60′ seconds. (the average Uk TV commercial is 30 seconds).

RADIO

‘The theatre of the mind’ as I call it or as known in the industry.
Commercial radio in the Uk can be purchased locally or on a national basis. The flexibility of radio is the benefit of immediate call to action and can be used in any combination with other media or stand alone.
Local radio can be very cheap and a great way to promote any product or service, and add frequency to any campaign.

NATIONAL PRESS
Who said national press was dead, national press still attracts millions of readers day in day out.
The main uk titles are:

Sun and News of the world
Daily/ Sunday Mirror
Daily/ Sunday Mail
Daily/ Sunday Express
Daily/ Sunday Telegraph
Daily/ Sunday Times
Daily/ Independont on Sunday
Daily/ Sunday Star
FT
(there are other titles)

The various titles above reach a wide range of demographics, and can be planned to reach your target market using an array of sizes in colour or black and white. Lets not forget they also carry a wide variety of supplements which cover many topics ie Fashion, Food and Drink, Motoring etc.

LOCAL and REGIONAL PRESS

You will find thousands of these titles throughout the Uk, from free sheets to paid for titles.
They cover virtually every town and city in the UK.
They tend to cover just local news and events, and carry local classified advertising.
A great combination with local radio.
However if you are launching a product or service nationally and using local/regional press, you should compare the cost of a local/regional press campaign with national press. As sometimes you will find the national press option more cost-effective.

MAGAZINES

There are too many glossy magazines to list here, however there are many available within the Uk. Covering every topic and lifestyle you can think of.
From ‘Cosmopolitan’, ‘Homes and Garden’ to ‘Fish friers Gazette’ yes really.
The opportunities for reaching your potential customers (target market) can certainly be achieved with good planning and buying.
Within the glossy titles you can purchase (as an example) 1/4pages, 1/2pages, pages and double page spreads etc.
The key to getting it right is knowing your budget level and creative treatment and finally your target market.
Once this is set it’s just a matter of good planning and negotiating on your behalf.
It should also be noted that many of these titles also carry classified advertising.

CINEMA

Cinema is an excellent media opportunity for exposing your brand or service to the younger end of the market ie 15-25 year olds. Using longer commercials which add great impact.
Cinema can be purchased in many packages from a particular genre to locations throughout the UK.

POSTERS
Or outdoor as we like to call it in the media.
This covers a wide range of media options:
Static posters
Buses
Taxis
Mobile posters
London underground
Railway advertising
Bus stop advertising
Store advertising
Airports
Ferry ports
It varies quite a lot and the opportunities are vast.
The key to any outdoor poster advertising in creative copy. By this I mean if you are placing a static poster wherever it may be, the copy must be short and concise, as your creative message has to be seen and understood quickly and easily, as passers by only have a shorttime frame to take onboard your message.

With locations such as bus stops railway stations and inparticular the underground stations it is possible to impart more copy as your potential viewer has more time to read your advertising copy.

The larger outdoor static sites are an excellent way for promoting your branding proposition.
Wi
th store posters being ideal to reach your potential customers at their point of purchase
Outdoor media opportunities can be found throughout the Uk, from high streets to airports.

COMMENTS

I have tried to give a rough guide to the various media opportunities available to you throughout this blog for promoting your brand, product or services. I will update this article from time to time and hope you have found some of this information useful.

If you are considering advertising within the Uk and need further help you can contact me by e-mail harrymedia@aol.com

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Global International Conference Calls

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So you are looking for the best international conference call solutions to easily host global conference calls for your business or individual use. So which solutions are the easiest and most affordable?

As a part of most businesses, international conference calls are necessary sometimes. Since people attending the call may be connecting from any part of the world, using a reliable and quality solution is the key to a successful conference call.

When looking for a great conference hosting service, there are two important factors to consider: reliability and saving money.

You certainly want your calls to have a great quality. The voice must be clear and fast, with no major delay. Considering the fact that it is an international conference call and because of the long distance, the call quality plays a big part.

Another factor is choosing an affordable, low cost solution. After all, why spend too much money on a conference service while you can save money and use a more affordable one with equal or even more features?

Some companies offer you toll free numbers to make your conference calls free for people from US and Canada. You will also receive a separate number to give to your international customers or business partners to use to connect to the call easily.

When you do a simple search online, you will be amazed to see how many different companies are offering conference hosting services for global use.

Each of them come with certain benefits, quality, and price. You can compare carefully your choices to choose the best solution for you.

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Media Series: Issue 5 – Television Advertising

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Overview of TV

Television is the big dog when it comes to media dollar expenditures. There are a number of reasons for this but the obvious one is that more people spend more time in front of their TVs than any other media source. For hitting the masses, there is really no better opportunity from a media standpoint than TV. In short, TV has a proven track record of getting to consumers and shaping their behavior.

Upside of TV

Some of the upside I mentioned above, but there are a number of very good reasons why TV advertising can be advantageous.

  • TV gives you instant credibility. Consumers just seem to believe things they see on TV.
  • The ability to combine sight, sound and motion adds dimension and realism to your advertising campaign.
  • Through program selection, you can target your audience pretty effectively.
  • No medium offers greater mass global impact. Depending on your budget, TV has almost unlimited reach and a high percentage of people have more than one TV.
  • The creative opportunity is larger for TV. If you have the cash, you can take a camera anywhere and create incredible presentation.
  • Since it is generally a leisure activity, consumers spend a lot of time in front of a TV and they have the ability to immediately act on many buying impulses.

Downside of TV

TV advertising is not without its pitfalls, though, and any one of you reading this could list off some of the reasons as easily as I could.

  • To really hit the masses, broadcast TV is best and commercial spots are very, very pricey. Cable offers more affordable options but then you don’t hit the masses as well.
  • Research shows that you need significant repetition (at least 5-7 viewings) for your message to sink in. To get 5-7 viewings, you need to be on a lot more than that. Pricey.
  • Before you even buy commercial spots, you need to spend significant dollars to create a high quality ad. You can do it for less but generally not very well.
  • Much like radio, your commercial spot comes and goes and when it’s out of sight it falls out of mind. That is, unless you buy more spots.
  • As a rule, people don’t want to watch commercials. The turn on the TV to watch the program. With more and more channels available, it’s easy to skip the commercials.

Main Thing To Know About TV Advertising

Television is the largest target of media dollars for a reason and it’s attractive for a lot of reasons. My problems with TV are that it is very expensive (when done properly) and it’s somewhat inefficient no matter how well you do it. My advice is, if you have the brand and the budget to do it right, TV can be money well spent. You need to have a high quality ad, lots of repetition and the right commercial time. If you’re not sure you have the budget, then you don’t have the budget. You’re much better off not doing it than doing it poorly.

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What Is Smart TV?

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The very latest waves of Flat Screen Digital TVs hitting our shores this year are being marketed as “Smart TVs”. What does this mean, and what benefits do they have? Let’s try and explain this concept in a simplified manner.

First – A very quick history on TV evolution

Television technology has advanced rapidly over the years, progressing from the basic “Square” 4:3 Analogue CRT Tube. The introduction and sharp rise in popularity of DVD then saw the implementation of widescreen TVs to suit this format. As the trend towards viewing movies in widescreen digital became the standard, similar steps had to be made for day to day Television viewing. So the integration of digital set top boxes began, and our Television networks began to broadcast our TV programs in digital to coincide with that. As the public began to embrace the “cinema” experience, the next natural progression was larger screens, so Plasma, LCD and later LED panels were introduced. In the years that followed, besides obvious improvements in clarity, sound & design, the only major change made to TV technology was size – demand called for bigger and thinner TVs. Over the last year or so, the introduction of 3D Technology was the next “big-thing”, as well the call for more eco-friendly panels.

So we’ve seen TV’s develop from a bulky, square Picture Tube with a choice of five stations to view in analogue, to large, ultra-slim, Full High Definition panels capable of displaying 3D images, and a choice of over twenty channels broadcasting many programs in widescreen digital. Add to that a very sharp decline in price, and an ever increasing focus on environmentally friendly performance – we’ve certainly come a long way. So where to from here?

Introducing Smart TVs…

The internet is now a dominant part of our daily existence. Our mobile phones have now evolved from devices used just for making phone calls into “Smart-Phones” – basically mobile phones with internet accessibility. The same technology has filtered through to our TVs, and coined the phrase – “Smart TVs”. Today’s new waves of Smart TVs have a very large focus on online interactive media such as Internet   TV ,  media  streaming, social networking and web browsing. In a Similar way to how internet browsing, web widgets and software like games or applications are integrated in today’s smartphones, the same trend towards such connectivity has now become part of today’s TVs, creating a convergence between computers and Digital TV. Smart TVs allow viewers to search for and find movies, video clips and photos on the internet, stored on a home hard drive, through to your TV, using your remote control.

Smart TVs will eventually change the way we access media in our homes

This convenience will eventually change the way we access media in our homes, or more precisely, from where we access our media. One example would be not having to run down to our local video stores anymore just to rent a movie. By pressing a couple of buttons on our TV remote we suddenly have access to hundreds of movies available for streaming from the comfort of our lounge. Applications (or “Apps” as they are commonly referred to) add yet another facet for us to explore. There are a limitless number of apps that can be created. If you are an I-Phone user, you will already have encountered dozens upon dozens of ingenious applications that you now find hard to live without. There are apps for everything, ranging from live weather and news forecasts, to TV Show catch-up episodes, the latest sports news for your favourite team as well as live scores, and of course the whole social media forum such as Twitter, Facebook and YouTube. These are now right at your fingertips, transforming TVs into a very diverse media network. The ability to Skype call is also an option, with the aid of a brand-specific Skype camera. While a small number of these features, in some form, have been available over the last year from some television manufacturers, in 2011 we will see the introduction of unrestricted web-browsing in some models. This opens up a limitless array of possibilities by transforming your TV into a fully functional web browser.

Smart TVs – Bringing the internet into your lounge room

There is a distinct advantage of not having to take the effort to boot up your PC, which is usually located in another room, to perform tasks such as purchasing items on eBay, checking your E-mail, or to Google something that has just taken your interest on TV. With large high definition screens, and web pages fully optimised to suit, there is certainly a distinct advantage in browsing the internet from the comfort of your lounge instead of through a little laptop screen or sitting at your computer desk. Even if you have photos, music, movies or video files stored on your home computer, you can access all of these wirelessly through your Home network and stream them directly to your TV.

So, in summary…

Smart TVs are the next generation of Flat Screen Digital Television, merging your TV and computer’s functionality into one.

With the ability to stream high definition movies, connect with your friends using Facebook and Twitter, stream TV Shows, and get instant access to news, sport and weather – all from the comfort of your lounge and on a large High Definition TV screen. Some of the higher end Digital TV models will offer built in web browsers – opening up unrestricted web browsing directly to your Television Set. As Plasma and LED Screens have evolved to become thinner, more energy efficient and providing us with stunning Full High Definition clarity. We now have a limitless array of media applications opened up to us, providing us with versatility and cross functional capability like we have never had before.

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International Conferencing for Your Business Brilliance

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With fast paced globalization, world economy has witnessed a drastic change and now the companies have decided to head on foreign investments to maintain pace with the changing market scenario. Companies are keen to set up offices across the world. The reason for establishing offices abroad is to keep a strong footing in international arena. So, in order sustain close contacts and co-ordination with the regional branches of the corporate houses, international conferencing has become really indispensable. Besides, such conferencing solution has proved to be an essential means of connecting multiple parties straight to people in various locations round the globe.

Frankly speaking, gone are the days when business personnel and representatives were required to throng to foreign countries to meet and invite new business collaborates, suppliers, channel partners, retailers and other dealers. With international conferencing becoming the most sought after tool these days nothing seems impossible. One can just make good use of internet or telephone to connect with the stakeholders and communicate with them in real-time. So it is not only convenient but also reduces the conference calling expenses, curtailing the traveling time and costs each time.

Big business houses and organizations, seeking for the most cost-effective means to manage their conferencing arrangements can look for call service providers which offer effective services at reasonable costs. The service providers come up with wide range of web interacting solutions that let the users work in virtual setting which is pretty supportive to collaboration. The basic requirement for such type of virtual meeting is computer or laptop well accompanied by fast net connection and a conferencing application. The conferencing service doesn’t demand any software installation by participants or moderators. What’s more is that the user-friendly application is well accessible from all the web browsers devoid of any plug-ins. Simply put, they are fully safe, as the service operator encrypts the solutions as per maximum security protocol.

There are plenty of providers dealing with international conference call service who are into offering global conferencing service to company. The providers present applications which are installed with multiple advanced features. The users get the choice of transferring the applications, documents and files without any heck followed by sharing the whole desktop with participants present on the other side. The webcasting service lets the participants to record the meeting for further reference. Apart from these, the effective features include drag and drop, white boarding which are included into the transmission software to guarantee right brainstorming and transmission at real time amongst participants who are located at distant places. Companies as well as individuals can choose such features as per their needs and requirements while gaining international conferencing solutions from reliable service providers.

To conclude, this can be said that with operator backed conference call, you get the liberty to simplify the whole conference process and facilitate your meeting in a more effective and formal manner. Well, regardless of your business size, be it big or small, you can make good use of this superb international conferencing and make the communication easy like never before.

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Satellite TV Technology – Know How it Works

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Satellite TV has brought about a revolution in the world of television. A modern broadcasting technology has been incorporated in it. The technology involves the usage of a set top box and a satellite dish for receiving the television broadcast through the communication satellites.

The greatest advantage of satellite TV is that it has a wider range of coverage and therefore, it can access even those areas where the cable or terrestrial television systems do not function. It can be rightly said that this network provides entertainment to the people in almost every corner of the world.

Nowadays, these television networks are being used in three different modes to make you avail them. The technology has been devised in such a way that television can be directly received by your own satellite dish at home. It can be received by your local TV affiliates or can also be distributed across the cable systems after reception through head-ends.

Most companies in the television market are offering direct view of satellite TV. A DBS (direct broadcast satellite) provider is used for programming the dish receiver at your home. This enables you to view it directly on your television set.

Today’s generation has hardly got any time to get bored. The numerous TV channels received by the satellite dish and the set top box in their house provide them with uninterrupted entertainment. The reception is not just limited to the television screen. Technology in the recent days have made it possible for you to view television in your laptop or desktop. That is why we say uninterrupted entertainment. No matter where you are, with the Satellite TV at your service, you can watch your favorite program at any time of the day.

The costs involved in availing such services are quite reasonable. The companies in the market are offering handsome packages, which are worth purchasing as far as the quality of entertainment is concerned. The Satellite TV provides high resolution pictures on your television screen. It ensures great picture quality along with unlimited entertainment for a lifetime that makes it worth purchasing even if it costs you a few extra bucks.

Of all the five hundred or more channels offered by the TV, many of them are educationally helpful. Thus, learning and entertainment go hand in hand. The kids of today are surrounded by gadgets and they hardly find any interest in learning from books. But they do like to fijit with the mouse or the remote control, and so these channels are a great resource for them to learn. Besides, several channels in various languages from all around the world can easily be viewed on just a click of the remote button or the mouse of your PC. If there is any kind of channel left other than the usual ones, the satellite TV provides with you all.

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How International Audio Conferencing Works

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Audio conferencing enables individuals from different locations to connect and speak with each other using the services of a secure telephone line. The process allows people who otherwise may not be able to physically meet each other to communicate and have meetings. This is a preferred mode of communication as it is more economical for businesses than to have their personnel travel across cities or countries to attend meetings. International voice conferencing allows people in different countries to communicate with each other at a pre-determined date and time.

This is more commonly known as teleconferencing or voice conferencing, any number of people can be connected at the same time. This form of communication is widely in use in commerce, education and business. It also saves time as traveling from one country to another can take time, and delays can always make such trips much longer. Traveling also causes disruption at work as the time it takes for an employee to travel means time away from the office.

An international audio con-call differs from an ordinary phone call in the sense that there are more than two people who make up a voice con-call. Callers are connected to what is known as a conference bridge which is a server that makes it possible for many people to communicate with one another.

There are different types of international voice conferencing services available today. The first type is the “dial in” which is simply dialing a number that has been pre-designated and given to all the participants of the conference to call. It is normally accompanied with a code or passkey that needs to be entered via a touch tone phone.

The second type is called the “reservation-less call” which is most commonly used for businesses that choose to allow participants in Canada and/or in the US to connect toll-free into the con-call. If the participant is outside the local dialing calling area, there is no long distance cost incurred as these are charges to the host of the con-call. This type of call also utilizes a passkey or pass-code.

The third type of voice conference call is “operator assisted.” Operator assisted con-calls uses services offered by a conference call company which normally includes the bringing of participants to the call (operator dial out), call moderator and live call monitoring, roll call, faxing or emailing of any documents to all the participants, services like translation, and many more services.

Such voice con-calls allow businesses to communicate with people in different locations or countries without incurring traveling, hotel costs, per dime costs, and any travel delays that can arise.

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Online TV – How Does Online TV Work?

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Everyone loves TV right? Things have certainly come a lot in leaps and bounds since the old TV was invented.

Why not watch TV online? Not just TV from your area, not even regular cable TV, but be able to get TV from all over the world. Think about being able to use the power of the internet and have 2000, 3000 or even over 4,000 channels straight to your computer at home or even work.

Well that’s what is happening today. Online TV works like regular old TV. Broadcasters for regular TV put out their signal and your antenna at home picks up the signal and there you have it, you have TV ( that was a very simple version ). Well online TV works the same way. There are so many channels from around the world and all these companies are realizing that the internet is where they need to put their product.

The power of broadband and some nifty software can enable people like your self to be able to watch your favorite sports events live ( and not pay for pay per view ) you can also watch all your favorite movies & TV shows and basically keep up to date with anything that is going on in the world.

To recap, online TV works pretty much the same way as normal TV does. Broadcasters are now using the internet as another way to broadcast their channels, and for us it is a great opportunity to take advantage of. Really the software that has been made to put all these channels together in one place is what really make online TV work well.

As internet connections get faster and, eventually you will see a PC hooked up to the family flat screen and everyone watching online TV.

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Digital Media Player Guide Review – Western Digital WD TV Live Network – Ready HD Media Player

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If you are looking for more bang for your buck then the Western Digital WD TV Live Network-ready HD Media Player WDBAAN0000NBK-NESN has some of the best features and capabilities on the market. The WD TV live is a very popular digital media player, and is highly rated by its owners for ease of use and functionality. WD TV Live added some key upgrades from the previous release from Western Digital, the WD TV. This player is network ready, provides video playback up to 1080p TrueHD and digital sound though the media player optical output or the HDMI output. One of the biggest improvements were to the menu system for selecting your media.

Western Digital WD TV Live Network-Ready HD

The WD TV Live digital media player is a media streamer that allows you to stream your video, music, and photos to your high definition TV and play your audio via your home theater system. This player does not come with an internal hard drive, but rather must be connected to a USB mass storage device or network containing your media files. The recommended storage drive is the Western Digital My Book Essential USB 2.0 Desktop External Hard Drive (1 Terabyte -1TB Model) which will provide ample room to store lots of movies, photos, and music. As it comes from the manufacturer, the WD Live HD is a hard wired network ready media streamer. There is nothing to prevent you from going wireless also with a USB wireless dongle. A popular wireless adapter for the WD TV Live is the Linksys Range Plus Wireless USB Compact Adapter that will let you connect to your existing home or business wireless network. Either wired or wireless this digital media player has it’s competition cut out for it. It is very similar to the Patriot Box Office HD and the HDX1000 Network Media Tank, but it doesn’t offer the feature of adding your own internal hard drive to the media player itself. If this isn’t a concern then the WD TV Live is really a fantastic media player. It offers the latest and greatest including 1080p true high definition through HDMI and Dolby Digital and DTS Encoders. Here are the goods, on the WD TV Live:

Includes HDMI 1.3 port, Supporting up to True HD 1080p

Connect external hard drives directly or connect to your network to view movies, photos, and music

USB port for USB drives

Audio formats: MP3, WAV/PCM/LPCM, WMA, AAC, FLAC, MKA, AIF/AIFF, OGG, Dolby Digital, DTS

Video file formats: AVI (Xvid, AVC, MPEG1/2/4), MPG/MPEG, VOB, MKV (h.264, x.264, AVC, MPEG1/2/4, VC-1), TS/TP/M2T (MPEG1/2/4, AVC, VC-1), MP4/MOV (MPEG4, h.264), M2TS, WMV9

Photo formats: JPEG, GIF, TIF/TIFF, BMP, PNG

Connections: Video: HDMI v1.3 (up to 1080p), Composite Video Out; Audio: S/PDIF Optical Digital Audio, Other: 10/100 Ethernet.

Remote Control Included.

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